Friday, March 17, 2006

Copyright and CopyLeft E-Pathfinder

Scope

This pathfinder will guide you to a variety of helpful resources needed to answer any questions you have on the subject of “Copyright and Copyleft”. It is intended for ages starting at twelve and up.

Copyright is a collection of rights granted to artists, authors, musicians, and other creators of original works.
Piatt, Mickie A. "Copyright." World Book Online Reference Center. 2006. [Place of access. Date of access.] .


According to Kee Bong Kim’s article, The Biological Basis of Law”,”the idea behind copyright law is to protect original works of authorship so that the creator of a work can be fairly compensated for his or her efforts. In theory this makes lots of sense as it creates an incentive for talented, and some not so talented, people to engage in creating content that enriches all our lives. On its face copyright does not seem problematic, yet the implementation of this simple idea has produced a crushing burden on some content creators. Lawrence Lessig gives an example in his book The Future of Ideas where he discusses the plight of Davis Guggenheim, a film maker.
As a film maker, Davis Guggenheim, must 'clear rights'-acquire the copyright--for things that appear in his film. This involves things like the theme music played during the opening credits or the rights to a novel on which a film is based. Unfortunately, this process has gotten so involved that you get the sense that the lawyers and not the director is now determining what can and cannot be used in a film. Things as incidental as furniture, the layout of a courtyard and logos on clothing have to be cleared before a film can go forward, for copyright covers the design of most everything, and most everything is designed. Short of making a film with actors in a plain, architecturally uninteresting room without any furniture or decoration, without a view of the outside world, in clothing devoid of any logos or other identifying features, and without recorded music or a script that is based on another work, it is no longer possible to make a film without hiring a lawyer to 'clear rights'.
The software industry is making an interesting adjustment to this problem. Software programmers rely on the work of others to an even greater extent than film makers do. If you are writing an application it has to be able to work with the operating system it was designed for and so forth. In response to the problem of copyright the open source movement has appeared along with the idea of copyleft. What copyleft does is make a piece of software free. This protection is even more robust than simply placing a program in the public domain as it is possible for a programmer to take a piece of public domain software and alter it to the needs of a specific segment of the market and than charge for this new program. Copyleft on the other hand sets as a condition of use that any future modifications to a program will not alter it status as free software. One of the stated reasons for the copyleft is spurring the creation and distribution of improvements to the underlying software. “
http://www.biologyoflaw.com/content/Illustrations/ilc321.htm

What is the relationship between copyright and copyleft?

According to an EcoPort Foundation article, “copyright creates an opportunity for the author or creator of original intellectual property to claim and defend ownership to published information within a framework of national and international laws. This system assumes ownership as a default and an associated and implied right of the original act of creation that not only allows the owner to (1) defend these rights but also; (2), to specify conditions of use under which the owner would permit others to use the original material. Thus, there are two interwoven components of any copyright claim that deal with rights establishment and conditions of use, respectively.
Copyright statements have to comply with certain specifications, which usually consist of using (but not only), the universally-recognised symbol: © usually associated with a date; or statements such as 'All Rights Reserved' to establish the ownership claim aspect of the rights claim as the initial portion of a larger copyright statement. Then follows a description of conditions, usually stated in strong terms that aim to tell readers what they are not allowed to do, but which may also describe permissions and conditions of 'ownership release' conceded by the owner.
Effectively, and in very simplistic terms, a copyright claim amounts to saying '...this is mine and this is what you cannot and/or can do with my property...'
Here is an example of a restrictive copyright statement (one that places most of its emphasis and authority on telling people what they are not allowed to do, as it was FAO's traditional 'default' copyright statement of choice:
"All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner."
Copyleft has to do with this second, conditionality component of the traditional copyright statement. Specifically, copyleft predicatively depends on establishing copyrights first, because only after ownership rights have been established, can the owner, and only the owner, make concessions about 'permissible' use. Obviously, one has to own something before one can give it away.
Unlike the established symbols and their associated, supporting legal systems that make the © of copyright, the ® of Registered Trade Mark and the ™ of Claimed Trade Mark law, there is no formal copyleft symbol or system, simply because it is an optional extension of the existing © system.
It is increasingly common for copyright owners to add more explicitly liberal conditions to their copyright claim statements whereby they give a priori permission, and specify, how their intellectual property might be used. Thus, there is a welcome and growing tendency to allow information to be used freely for educational and not-for-profit use. This kind of permission is, in fact, a kind of copyleft condition although usually not labeled as such. This approach is well illustrated by the following copyright statement currently used by FAO:
"All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the sources is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders."
The above FAO copyright statement and its 'copyleft-like' concessions, is very similar to what the Copyleft movement and EcoPort are adopting as its copyleft regime for the management of intellectual property. In fact, 'true' copyleft simply goes a bit further than the 'liberal' FAO statement above by adding an additional condition that states that any person who uses the information, must also distribute the information, and any improvements and variations thereof, under the same copyleft conditions.
The purpose of this last aspect of 'true' copyleft, is to ensure that anybody who gets 90% of an idea from a 'generous' original owner of intellectual property, cannot simply add say 10% novelty, claim that the new product is novel, and place it under stringent copyright protection for commercial gain; especially if the financial revenues or profits are not shared with the original inventor who made the first 90% of 'value' possible in the first place (although the concept of 'derived copyright' exists as part of current copyright regimes, it is a vastly under-used facility compared to the extent that information is simply re-arranged and paraphrased in many publications).
These examples hopefully make clear that it is neither correct nor logical to talk of copyright *or* copyleft, because the latter is a nested version of the former.”

http://epf.ecoport.org/question1.html



Keywords and Phrases for Searching

Copyright Copy Left Intellectual Property Fair Use Ethics


Copyright and Licensing Resources
Compiled by Sherri Mueller (DCCCD), Employee Intranet, Copyright Clearance Center.

http://www.dcccd.edu/dsc/erss/general/copyright.html
ALA: Copyright Sites related to federal and state intellectual property issues are listed plus other useful links. Topics include the DMCA, database protection, distance education, copyright education, and UCITA.
CopyOwn: A Resource on Copyright Ownership for the Higher Education Community
Copyright and Copyleft
Copyright and Fair Use References Compiled by Sherri Mueller (DCCCD).
Copyright Clearance Center
Copyright, Intellectual Property Rights, and Licensing Issues contentS: Current Awareness Reference Organizations Initiatives & Projects Articles, Papers & Reports Laws, Policies & Court Opinions
Copyright - Libraries & the Public Includes sections on:
Copyright Basics
Copyright Fair Use
Copyright & the Library
Copyright & Learning
Copyright & Research
Copyright & the Internet
Copyright Resources Online
Copyright: Resources: Copyright: Where to Begin
Copyright Permission Form Letter
Electronic Reserves Copyright Policies Based on Fair Use November 2003 Examples of how research and academic libraries have used the fair use provisions of Section 107 of the Copyright Act as the basis for their electronic reserves policies.
Intellectual Property, Copyright, and Fair Use Resources
LibLicense: Licensing Digital Information Website and Discussion List. Includes "Bibliography of Licensing Sources"
Licensing Electronic Resources: Strategic and Practical Considerations for Signing Electronic Information Delivery Agreements Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries.
Stanford University Libraries: Copyright & Fair Use
U.S. Copyright Office
What is Copyright?
World Intellectual Property Organization
WWW Multimedia Law


Online Resources – Internet Sites
Educational CyberPlayGround:
ECP Mission Statement – “Improving literacy through arts, education, and advocacy by providing collaborative and interdisciplinary resources for understanding world culture.”
Any website that quotes Kurt Vonnegut and the Merry Pranksters is alright by me.
www.edu-cyberpg.com/Internet/copyrightleft.html




Wu Ming - Previously Unpublished Notes on Copyright and Copyleft, 2005
Previously unpublished notes on copyright and copyleft by Wu Ming (*), translated by Jason Di Rosso

www.wumingfoundation.com/italiano/outtakes/copyleft_en.htm



if:book: Copyright and Copyleft Archives
Can there be a compromise on copyright? Post date 02.08.2006

www.futureofthebook.org/blog/archives/copyright_and_copyleft/


AFF's Brainwash :: The yin and yang of copyright and copyleft
The yin and yang of copyright and copyleft. by Arrow Augerot Feb 15, 2004 3 comments. » Send Article » Print-Friendly

www.affbrainwash.com/archives/010395.php



Thomas Jefferson, Needles and Haystacks
Part 1: Copyright and Copyleft. Copyright is a difficult concept to characterize.

www.bluespike.com/jefferson-cc.html




Copyleft & Copyright
... Almstrum, June 10, 1999] Copyright and Copyleft. 1.0 Introduction ... 5.0 Conclusion. Copyright and copyleft protections are important for software development.

www.cs.utexas.edu/users/almstrum/cs370/hung-wong/copyleft.html



beSpacific: Copyright Archives
This website provides daily law and technology news with links to reliable primary and secondary sources on e-government, copyright, privacy, government documents, cyber crime, and ID theft, the Patriot Act, and freedom of information.

www.bespacific.com/mt/archives/cat_copyright.html


SearchPhilosophies of Free Software and Intellectual Property
... Whereas both copyright and copyleft require special laws and a means of enforcement to be meaningful.

www.ram.org/ramblings/philosophy/fmp/free-software-philosophy.html


CopyLeft
A fascinating article by Robert Boynton at the New York Times discusses the burgeoning fight between copyright and copyleft. In what can almost be described ...

http://www.kickassgear.com/Reviews/CopyLeft.htm

Latest News...
Google wins a court battle by Elinor Mills, CNET News.com
Published on ZDNet News: March 16, 2006
In a legal win for Google, a federal judge dismissed a lawsuit filed by a writer who claimed the search giant infringed on his copyright by archiving a Usenet posting of his and providing excerpts from his Web site in search results.
http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-6050667.html




Books on: copyright and copy left

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1.
Copyright and Multimedia Products: A Comparative Analysis
Book by Irini A. Stamatoudi; Cambridge University Press, 2002
Subjects:
Copyright And Electronic Data Processing, Copyright--Audio-Visual Materials, Copyright--Interactive Multimedia, Intellectual Property
...protected by the existing copyright legislation. This...presentation on any hard copy, and it also becomes...the law have been left behind by the new...works Originally copyright was meant as a regime...of the monopoly, copyright being a monopoly...the work in hard copy irrespective of...
2.
International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice
Book by Paul Goldstein; Oxford University Press, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright, Copyright, International
...economic life has left a visible mark on the nations copyright law. American...accommodation of French copyright law to new reproduction...technologies was left almost exclusively...addressed questions left open since the...electronic uses of copyrighted works. The Conference...

3.
Film Copyright in the European Union
Book by Pascal Kamina; Cambridge University Press, 2002
Subjects:
Copyright--Motion Pictures--European Union Countries, Copyright--Motion Pictures--France, Copyright--Motion Pictures--Great Britain
...differences of perception left their stamp upon national copyright legislation. As a...relation to private copy . See para. 228. copyright exemptions or the...strip could not be a copy of a book. 33 See Copinger on Copyright , 1915, p. 248. Although...

4.
Literary Copyright Reform in Early Victorian England: The Framing of the 1842 Copyright Act
Book by Catherine Seville; Cambridge University Press, 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Great Britain--History--19th Century
...changing society had previously been left largely to the courts, which had gone...law is essential. Talfourds plans for copyright reform were, therefore, dependent on...indicate a quasi-proprietary right to the copy. Thus copy came to mean the sole right...

5.
The Yearbook of Copyright and Media Law - Vol. 4
Book by Eric M. Barendt, Alison Firth, Stephen Bate, Julia Palca, John Ensor, Thomas Gibbons; Oxford University Press, 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Europe--Periodicals, Copyright--Great Britain--Periodicals, Mass Media--Law And Legislation--Europe--Periodicals, Mass Media--Law And Legislation--Great Britain--Periodicals
The Yearbook of Copyright and Media Law 1999 THE YEARBOOK OF Copyright and Media Law 1999 General Editors PROFESSOR...Part One: Articles 1 Copyright Law and Censorship--The Impact of the Human Rights...

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Journal articles on: copyright and copy left
- 430 results
More journal Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
Owning Digital Copies: Copyright Law and the Incidents of Copy Ownership
Journal article by Joseph P. Liu; William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 42, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Digital recording--Laws, regulations, etc.
...balance struck by our existing copy copyright laws, the particular division of rights between copyright owner and copy owner? Another possible...line between the rights of copy owners and copyright owners. Or, perhaps more accurately...
2.
Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, 1996
Subjects:
Copyright--Political aspects, Information technology--Laws, regulations, etc., Intellectual property--Economic aspects
...value in the hard copy world, it simply...predigital limitations to copyright owner prerogatives...institutions has left this democratic theme...an infringement of copyright..sup.56 With readily...virtually no cost. If left unchecked, massive...borrowing a used hard copy could not. With current...

3.
Reducing Digital Copyright Infringement without Restricting Innovation
Journal article by Mark A. Lemley, R. Anthony Reese; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, 2004
Subjects:
Copyright infringement--Laws, regulations and rules, Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair use (Copyright law)--Laws, regulations and rules, Fair use (Copyright)--Laws, regulations and rules, File sharing--Laws, regulations and rules, Peer to peer computing--Laws, regulations and rules, Recording industry--Intellectual property, Sound recording industry--Intellectual property
...of the costs of copy production and...mixed blessing for copyright owners. Content...other person to copy is much more likely to constitute copyright infringement than...network at least one copy of at least 50 copyrighted works during any...

4.
Locating Copyright within the First Amendment Skein
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 54, 2001
Subjects:
Fair use (Copyright)--Litigation, Freedom of speech--Litigation, Gone with the Wind (Book)--Litigation, Parody--Litigation, Suntrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co.--268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001), The Wind Done Gone (Book)--Litigation
...authorization of the copyright owner (330) --will...needed to make such a copy, and the same is...controls in order to copy public domain material...intermingled with copyright-protected material...deploy access and copy control technology...protection for their copyrights. The DMCA includes...

5.
Copyright as a Rule of Evidence
Journal article by Douglas Lichtman; Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52, 2003
Subjects:
Copyright law--Interpretation and construction, Evidence (Law)--Analysis
...authors" and "writings" referring to copy right, and "inventors" and "discoveries...invoked this power to promulgate federal copyright statutes. The current one is the Copyright...eligible for protection. (17) That phrase was left undefined in the 1976 Act, however, and...

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Magazine articles on: copyright and copy left
- 139 results
More magazine Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
No Copyright for Directors

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journal articles on: copyright and copy left
- 430 results
More journal Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
Owning Digital Copies: Copyright Law and the Incidents of Copy Ownership
Journal article by Joseph P. Liu; William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 42, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Digital recording--Laws, regulations, etc.
...balance struck by our existing copy copyright laws, the particular division of rights between copyright owner and copy owner? Another possible...line between the rights of copy owners and copyright owners. Or, perhaps more accurately...
2.
Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, 1996
Subjects:
Copyright--Political aspects, Information technology--Laws, regulations, etc., Intellectual property--Economic aspects
...value in the hard copy world, it simply...predigital limitations to copyright owner prerogatives...institutions has left this democratic theme...an infringement of copyright..sup.56 With readily...virtually no cost. If left unchecked, massive...borrowing a used hard copy could not. With current...

3.
Reducing Digital Copyright Infringement without Restricting Innovation
Journal article by Mark A. Lemley, R. Anthony Reese; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, 2004
Subjects:
Copyright infringement--Laws, regulations and rules, Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair use (Copyright law)--Laws, regulations and rules, Fair use (Copyright)--Laws, regulations and rules, File sharing--Laws, regulations and rules, Peer to peer computing--Laws, regulations and rules, Recording industry--Intellectual property, Sound recording industry--Intellectual property
...of the costs of copy production and...mixed blessing for copyright owners. Content...other person to copy is much more likely to constitute copyright infringement than...network at least one copy of at least 50 copyrighted works during any...

4.
Locating Copyright within the First Amendment Skein
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 54, 2001
Subjects:
Fair use (Copyright)--Litigation, Freedom of speech--Litigation, Gone with the Wind (Book)--Litigation, Parody--Litigation, Suntrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co.--268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001), The Wind Done Gone (Book)--Litigation
...authorization of the copyright owner (330) --will...needed to make such a copy, and the same is...controls in order to copy public domain material...intermingled with copyright-protected material...deploy access and copy control technology...protection for their copyrights. The DMCA includes...

5.
Copyright as a Rule of Evidence
Journal article by Douglas Lichtman; Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52, 2003
Subjects:
Copyright law--Interpretation and construction, Evidence (Law)--Analysis
...authors" and "writings" referring to copy right, and "inventors" and "discoveries...invoked this power to promulgate federal copyright statutes. The current one is the Copyright...eligible for protection. (17) That phrase was left undefined in the 1976 Act, however, and...

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magazine articles on: copyright and copy left
- 139 results
More magazine Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
No Copyright for Directors
Magazine article by John Weidman; American Theatre, Vol. 16, September 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Theater--Production and direction, Theatrical producers and directors--Laws, regulations, etc.
...he or she is hiring. With this phrase left out, the paragraph seems to mean something...Playwrights should care because if a directors copyright is ever established, it will drastically...attempted to copyright his work by filing a copy of his stage directions, written in the...
2.
101 Questions about Copyright Law: Revised Edition
Magazine article by Robert C. Ehle; American Music Teacher, Vol. 53, December 2003
Subjects:
101 Questions About Copyright Law: Revised Edition (Book)
...continually changing, and issues normally are left for juries to decide, or to negotiations...very conservative and wary of violating copyright law. There are some really fascinating...digital technology make it possible to copy a DVD movie, with no quality loss, to...

3.
Who Will Own Your Next Good Idea? Some Corporations Want to Lock Up Copyright Even Tighter. Some Naive Intellectuals Want to Abandon Copyright Altogether. Where Is a "Do-Nothing" Congress Now That We Need One?
Magazine article by Charles C. Mann; The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 282, September 1998
Subjects:
Copyrights, Intellectual property, Journalists
...my payment to the copyright owner and invisibly...the record in my copy of the text. If I...you still want a copy, right? " Some people...their works with copyright boxes, concedes Esther...that a company can copy a competitors entire...without infringing copyright, because facts cannot...

4.
Copy Questions
Magazine article by Diane Painter, Doug Johnson, Carol Simpson; Learning & Leading with Technology, Vol. 32, May 2005
...about several points noted in "Are You the Copy Cop?" (L L, April 2005, pp. 14-20). Johnson and Simpson give a few scenarios of copyright violations in the classroom, and I question...subject to interpretation. When "cases" are left open-ended, they engender deeper questioning...

5.
Symposium
Magazine article by Ilana Mercer, N. Stephan Kinsella, James Delong; Insight on the News, Vol. 17, May 21, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Patent law--Interpretation and construction
...the exclusive rights to copy the work or to prepare...recently found out, the copyright holder can stop you from...argument made by the left regarding IP He was...your doing the same. A copy made of a book doesnt...that without patent and copyright we would all perish...

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newspaper articles on: copyright and copy left
- 38 results
More newspaper Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-38 >>



1.
Free Mickey Mouse; Copyrights Have Become Copy Wrongs
Newspaper article; The Washington Times, January 23, 2003
Subjects:
Walt Disney Co.
...Physicians and Surgeons. "This is not about left and right," says Lawrence Lessig, the...done to them. Only 2 percent of work copyrighted between 1923 and 1942, notes Justice Breyer...PETA when we really need them? There are copy rights and copy wrongs. Its time to free...
2.
The Family Gathered to Plan the Funeral. Whispers Came out as Hisses.Barbara Looked like She'd Left a Battle Zone; Farewell to the Greatest: Barbara Wanted a State Funeral. the Kids Didn't; She Wanted an Open Coffin. the Kids Didn't; His Children Were Upset His Last Words Were for His Mother; Now They Are Locked in a Bitter Struggle over His Pounds 150m Will
Newspaper article by Leon Wagener; Sunday Mirror (London, England), May 17, 1998
Subjects:
Sinatra, Frank
...award, the Congresssional Gold Medal, from President Clinton. Instead, he received a bronze copy a fortnight ago while lawyers argued over the copyright of his image being used on the medal. "He clutched it so tightly it was difficult to get...

3.
THE DAY MY LITTLE GIRL DROWNED; ROCKIN' TO DESTRUCTION: DAY TWO: It Was a Tragedy That Left Him Crushed by Grief - and Seeking Solace in Cocaine, Scotch and Joyless Affairs. with Unsparing Honesty, Status Quo Star Rick Parfitt Describes ..
Newspaper article; The Daily Mail (London, England), August 30, 2004
Subjects:
Richard, Cliff
...Meanwhile, our drummer John Coghlan had left the band. He was drinking heavily and...91;pounds sterling amp;#93;17.99. Copyright amp;#91;c amp;#93; 2004, Francis Rossi and Rick Parfitt. To order a copy for amp;#91;pounds sterling amp;#93...

4.
Vince Foster,her Lover of 16 Years Was Dead. Hillary Was Frantic with Grief- and Fear. Had He Left a Suicide Note Implicating Her?
Newspaper article; The Daily Mail (London, England), July 6, 2004
Subjects:
Clinton, Hillary Rodham
...Hillary Clintons Path to Power by Christopher Andersen, published by William Morrow at $25.95. Copyright (c) 2004, Christopher Andersen. To order a copy for pounds sterling14.99 (plus pounds sterling1.95 p p), call 0870 161 0870. Foster had done...

5.
BUSINESS PROFILE: I Was Determined to Succeed; from Crossroads to Becoming Solihull's Newly-Crowned Businesswoman of the Year. It's Been Quite a Journey for Karen Tirebuck, as John Marsden Discovers
Newspaper article; The Birmingham Post (England), November 19, 2005
...TV-types know the whereabouts of a copy, please contact Karen Tirebuck...Solihull and happily concedes she left without a conspicuous sackload...Insult to injury-wise, and due to copyright rules, her character was named...Huge stress... She said: "I left on the Friday and opened on...

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encyclopedia articles on: copyright and copy left
- 3 results




1.
Tapestry
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...are connected by a loose thread that is left hanging at the back. The different colors...artist, is provided for the weaver to copy. Themes for medieval hangings were drawn...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...
2.
Byzantine Art and Architecture
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...are a lavishly illustrated 9th-century copy of the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus and...architecture in the Byzantine Empire has left fewer traces. Foremost among these are...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...

3.
Tenure , in Law
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...when such tenures were recorded in the copy rolls (parchment records) of the manorial...and of serfdom in Europe and elsewhere left small holders in an insecure position...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...

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Copyright and CopyLeft E-Pathfinder

Scope

This pathfinder will guide you to a variety of helpful resources needed to answer any questions you have on the subject of “Copyright and Copyleft”. It is intended for ages starting at twelve and up.

Copyright is a collection of rights granted to artists, authors, musicians, and other creators of original works.
Piatt, Mickie A. "Copyright." World Book Online Reference Center. 2006. [Place of access. Date of access.] .


According to Kee Bong Kim’s article, The Biological Basis of Law”,”the idea behind copyright law is to protect original works of authorship so that the creator of a work can be fairly compensated for his or her efforts. In theory this makes lots of sense as it creates an incentive for talented, and some not so talented, people to engage in creating content that enriches all our lives. On its face copyright does not seem problematic, yet the implementation of this simple idea has produced a crushing burden on some content creators. Lawrence Lessig gives an example in his book The Future of Ideas where he discusses the plight of Davis Guggenheim, a film maker.
As a film maker, Davis Guggenheim, must 'clear rights'-acquire the copyright--for things that appear in his film. This involves things like the theme music played during the opening credits or the rights to a novel on which a film is based. Unfortunately, this process has gotten so involved that you get the sense that the lawyers and not the director is now determining what can and cannot be used in a film. Things as incidental as furniture, the layout of a courtyard and logos on clothing have to be cleared before a film can go forward, for copyright covers the design of most everything, and most everything is designed. Short of making a film with actors in a plain, architecturally uninteresting room without any furniture or decoration, without a view of the outside world, in clothing devoid of any logos or other identifying features, and without recorded music or a script that is based on another work, it is no longer possible to make a film without hiring a lawyer to 'clear rights'.
The software industry is making an interesting adjustment to this problem. Software programmers rely on the work of others to an even greater extent than film makers do. If you are writing an application it has to be able to work with the operating system it was designed for and so forth. In response to the problem of copyright the open source movement has appeared along with the idea of copyleft. What copyleft does is make a piece of software free. This protection is even more robust than simply placing a program in the public domain as it is possible for a programmer to take a piece of public domain software and alter it to the needs of a specific segment of the market and than charge for this new program. Copyleft on the other hand sets as a condition of use that any future modifications to a program will not alter it status as free software. One of the stated reasons for the copyleft is spurring the creation and distribution of improvements to the underlying software. “
http://www.biologyoflaw.com/content/Illustrations/ilc321.htm

What is the relationship between copyright and copyleft?

According to an EcoPort Foundation article, “copyright creates an opportunity for the author or creator of original intellectual property to claim and defend ownership to published information within a framework of national and international laws. This system assumes ownership as a default and an associated and implied right of the original act of creation that not only allows the owner to (1) defend these rights but also; (2), to specify conditions of use under which the owner would permit others to use the original material. Thus, there are two interwoven components of any copyright claim that deal with rights establishment and conditions of use, respectively.
Copyright statements have to comply with certain specifications, which usually consist of using (but not only), the universally-recognised symbol: © usually associated with a date; or statements such as 'All Rights Reserved' to establish the ownership claim aspect of the rights claim as the initial portion of a larger copyright statement. Then follows a description of conditions, usually stated in strong terms that aim to tell readers what they are not allowed to do, but which may also describe permissions and conditions of 'ownership release' conceded by the owner.
Effectively, and in very simplistic terms, a copyright claim amounts to saying '...this is mine and this is what you cannot and/or can do with my property...'
Here is an example of a restrictive copyright statement (one that places most of its emphasis and authority on telling people what they are not allowed to do, as it was FAO's traditional 'default' copyright statement of choice:
"All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner."
Copyleft has to do with this second, conditionality component of the traditional copyright statement. Specifically, copyleft predicatively depends on establishing copyrights first, because only after ownership rights have been established, can the owner, and only the owner, make concessions about 'permissible' use. Obviously, one has to own something before one can give it away.
Unlike the established symbols and their associated, supporting legal systems that make the © of copyright, the ® of Registered Trade Mark and the ™ of Claimed Trade Mark law, there is no formal copyleft symbol or system, simply because it is an optional extension of the existing © system.
It is increasingly common for copyright owners to add more explicitly liberal conditions to their copyright claim statements whereby they give a priori permission, and specify, how their intellectual property might be used. Thus, there is a welcome and growing tendency to allow information to be used freely for educational and not-for-profit use. This kind of permission is, in fact, a kind of copyleft condition although usually not labeled as such. This approach is well illustrated by the following copyright statement currently used by FAO:
"All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the sources is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders."
The above FAO copyright statement and its 'copyleft-like' concessions, is very similar to what the Copyleft movement and EcoPort are adopting as its copyleft regime for the management of intellectual property. In fact, 'true' copyleft simply goes a bit further than the 'liberal' FAO statement above by adding an additional condition that states that any person who uses the information, must also distribute the information, and any improvements and variations thereof, under the same copyleft conditions.
The purpose of this last aspect of 'true' copyleft, is to ensure that anybody who gets 90% of an idea from a 'generous' original owner of intellectual property, cannot simply add say 10% novelty, claim that the new product is novel, and place it under stringent copyright protection for commercial gain; especially if the financial revenues or profits are not shared with the original inventor who made the first 90% of 'value' possible in the first place (although the concept of 'derived copyright' exists as part of current copyright regimes, it is a vastly under-used facility compared to the extent that information is simply re-arranged and paraphrased in many publications).
These examples hopefully make clear that it is neither correct nor logical to talk of copyright *or* copyleft, because the latter is a nested version of the former.”

http://epf.ecoport.org/question1.html



Keywords and Phrases for Searching

Copyright Copy Left Intellectual Property Fair Use Ethics


Copyright and Licensing Resources
Compiled by Sherri Mueller (DCCCD), Employee Intranet, Copyright Clearance Center.

http://www.dcccd.edu/dsc/erss/general/copyright.html
ALA: Copyright Sites related to federal and state intellectual property issues are listed plus other useful links. Topics include the DMCA, database protection, distance education, copyright education, and UCITA.
CopyOwn: A Resource on Copyright Ownership for the Higher Education Community
Copyright and Copyleft
Copyright and Fair Use References Compiled by Sherri Mueller (DCCCD).
Copyright Clearance Center
Copyright, Intellectual Property Rights, and Licensing Issues contentS: Current Awareness Reference Organizations Initiatives & Projects Articles, Papers & Reports Laws, Policies & Court Opinions
Copyright - Libraries & the Public Includes sections on:
Copyright Basics
Copyright Fair Use
Copyright & the Library
Copyright & Learning
Copyright & Research
Copyright & the Internet
Copyright Resources Online
Copyright: Resources: Copyright: Where to Begin
Copyright Permission Form Letter
Electronic Reserves Copyright Policies Based on Fair Use November 2003 Examples of how research and academic libraries have used the fair use provisions of Section 107 of the Copyright Act as the basis for their electronic reserves policies.
Intellectual Property, Copyright, and Fair Use Resources
LibLicense: Licensing Digital Information Website and Discussion List. Includes "Bibliography of Licensing Sources"
Licensing Electronic Resources: Strategic and Practical Considerations for Signing Electronic Information Delivery Agreements Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries.
Stanford University Libraries: Copyright & Fair Use
U.S. Copyright Office
What is Copyright?
World Intellectual Property Organization
WWW Multimedia Law


Online Resources – Internet Sites

Educational CyberPlayGround:
ECP Mission Statement – “Improving literacy through arts, education, and advocacy by providing collaborative and interdisciplinary resources for understanding world culture.”
Any website that quotes Kurt Vonnegut and the Merry Pranksters is alright by me.
www.edu-cyberpg.com/Internet/copyrightleft.html




Wu Ming - Previously Unpublished Notes on Copyright and Copyleft, 2005
Previously unpublished notes on copyright and copyleft by Wu Ming (*), translated by Jason Di Rosso

www.wumingfoundation.com/italiano/outtakes/copyleft_en.htm



if:book: Copyright and Copyleft Archives
Can there be a compromise on copyright? Post date 02.08.2006

www.futureofthebook.org/blog/archives/copyright_and_copyleft/


AFF's Brainwash :: The yin and yang of copyright and copyleft
The yin and yang of copyright and copyleft. by Arrow Augerot Feb 15, 2004 3 comments. » Send Article » Print-Friendly

www.affbrainwash.com/archives/010395.php



Thomas Jefferson, Needles and Haystacks
Part 1: Copyright and Copyleft. Copyright is a difficult concept to characterize.

www.bluespike.com/jefferson-cc.html




Copyleft & Copyright
... Almstrum, June 10, 1999] Copyright and Copyleft. 1.0 Introduction ... 5.0 Conclusion. Copyright and copyleft protections are important for software development.

www.cs.utexas.edu/users/almstrum/cs370/hung-wong/copyleft.html



beSpacific: Copyright Archives
This website provides daily law and technology news with links to reliable primary and secondary sources on e-government, copyright, privacy, government documents, cyber crime, and ID theft, the Patriot Act, and freedom of information.

www.bespacific.com/mt/archives/cat_copyright.html


SearchPhilosophies of Free Software and Intellectual Property
... Whereas both copyright and copyleft require special laws and a means of enforcement to be meaningful.

www.ram.org/ramblings/philosophy/fmp/free-software-philosophy.html


CopyLeft
A fascinating article by Robert Boynton at the New York Times discusses the burgeoning fight between copyright and copyleft. In what can almost be described ...

http://www.kickassgear.com/Reviews/CopyLeft.htm


Google wins a court battle by Elinor Mills, CNET News.com
Published on ZDNet News: March 16, 2006
In a legal win for Google, a federal judge dismissed a lawsuit filed by a writer who claimed the search giant infringed on his copyright by archiving a Usenet posting of his and providing excerpts from his Web site in search results.
http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-6050667.html




books on: copyright and copy left
- 30897 results
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1.
Copyright and Multimedia Products: A Comparative Analysis
Book by Irini A. Stamatoudi; Cambridge University Press, 2002
Subjects:
Copyright And Electronic Data Processing, Copyright--Audio-Visual Materials, Copyright--Interactive Multimedia, Intellectual Property
...protected by the existing copyright legislation. This...presentation on any hard copy, and it also becomes...the law have been left behind by the new...works Originally copyright was meant as a regime...of the monopoly, copyright being a monopoly...the work in hard copy irrespective of...
2.
International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice
Book by Paul Goldstein; Oxford University Press, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright, Copyright, International
...economic life has left a visible mark on the nations copyright law. American...accommodation of French copyright law to new reproduction...technologies was left almost exclusively...addressed questions left open since the...electronic uses of copyrighted works. The Conference...

3.
Film Copyright in the European Union
Book by Pascal Kamina; Cambridge University Press, 2002
Subjects:
Copyright--Motion Pictures--European Union Countries, Copyright--Motion Pictures--France, Copyright--Motion Pictures--Great Britain
...differences of perception left their stamp upon national copyright legislation. As a...relation to private copy . See para. 228. copyright exemptions or the...strip could not be a copy of a book. 33 See Copinger on Copyright , 1915, p. 248. Although...

4.
Literary Copyright Reform in Early Victorian England: The Framing of the 1842 Copyright Act
Book by Catherine Seville; Cambridge University Press, 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Great Britain--History--19th Century
...changing society had previously been left largely to the courts, which had gone...law is essential. Talfourds plans for copyright reform were, therefore, dependent on...indicate a quasi-proprietary right to the copy. Thus copy came to mean the sole right...

5.
The Yearbook of Copyright and Media Law - Vol. 4
Book by Eric M. Barendt, Alison Firth, Stephen Bate, Julia Palca, John Ensor, Thomas Gibbons; Oxford University Press, 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Europe--Periodicals, Copyright--Great Britain--Periodicals, Mass Media--Law And Legislation--Europe--Periodicals, Mass Media--Law And Legislation--Great Britain--Periodicals
The Yearbook of Copyright and Media Law 1999 THE YEARBOOK OF Copyright and Media Law 1999 General Editors PROFESSOR...Part One: Articles 1 Copyright Law and Censorship--The Impact of the Human Rights...

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journal articles on: copyright and copy left
- 430 results
More journal Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
Owning Digital Copies: Copyright Law and the Incidents of Copy Ownership
Journal article by Joseph P. Liu; William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 42, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Digital recording--Laws, regulations, etc.
...balance struck by our existing copy copyright laws, the particular division of rights between copyright owner and copy owner? Another possible...line between the rights of copy owners and copyright owners. Or, perhaps more accurately...
2.
Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, 1996
Subjects:
Copyright--Political aspects, Information technology--Laws, regulations, etc., Intellectual property--Economic aspects
...value in the hard copy world, it simply...predigital limitations to copyright owner prerogatives...institutions has left this democratic theme...an infringement of copyright..sup.56 With readily...virtually no cost. If left unchecked, massive...borrowing a used hard copy could not. With current...

3.
Reducing Digital Copyright Infringement without Restricting Innovation
Journal article by Mark A. Lemley, R. Anthony Reese; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, 2004
Subjects:
Copyright infringement--Laws, regulations and rules, Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair use (Copyright law)--Laws, regulations and rules, Fair use (Copyright)--Laws, regulations and rules, File sharing--Laws, regulations and rules, Peer to peer computing--Laws, regulations and rules, Recording industry--Intellectual property, Sound recording industry--Intellectual property
...of the costs of copy production and...mixed blessing for copyright owners. Content...other person to copy is much more likely to constitute copyright infringement than...network at least one copy of at least 50 copyrighted works during any...

4.
Locating Copyright within the First Amendment Skein
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 54, 2001
Subjects:
Fair use (Copyright)--Litigation, Freedom of speech--Litigation, Gone with the Wind (Book)--Litigation, Parody--Litigation, Suntrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co.--268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001), The Wind Done Gone (Book)--Litigation
...authorization of the copyright owner (330) --will...needed to make such a copy, and the same is...controls in order to copy public domain material...intermingled with copyright-protected material...deploy access and copy control technology...protection for their copyrights. The DMCA includes...

5.
Copyright as a Rule of Evidence
Journal article by Douglas Lichtman; Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52, 2003
Subjects:
Copyright law--Interpretation and construction, Evidence (Law)--Analysis
...authors" and "writings" referring to copy right, and "inventors" and "discoveries...invoked this power to promulgate federal copyright statutes. The current one is the Copyright...eligible for protection. (17) That phrase was left undefined in the 1976 Act, however, and...

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magazine articles on: copyright and copy left
- 139 results
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1.
No Copyright for Directors

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journal articles on: copyright and copy left
- 430 results
More journal Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >>



1.
Owning Digital Copies: Copyright Law and the Incidents of Copy Ownership
Journal article by Joseph P. Liu; William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 42, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Digital recording--Laws, regulations, etc.
...balance struck by our existing copy copyright laws, the particular division of rights between copyright owner and copy owner? Another possible...line between the rights of copy owners and copyright owners. Or, perhaps more accurately...
2.
Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, 1996
Subjects:
Copyright--Political aspects, Information technology--Laws, regulations, etc., Intellectual property--Economic aspects
...value in the hard copy world, it simply...predigital limitations to copyright owner prerogatives...institutions has left this democratic theme...an infringement of copyright..sup.56 With readily...virtually no cost. If left unchecked, massive...borrowing a used hard copy could not. With current...

3.
Reducing Digital Copyright Infringement without Restricting Innovation
Journal article by Mark A. Lemley, R. Anthony Reese; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, 2004
Subjects:
Copyright infringement--Laws, regulations and rules, Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair use (Copyright law)--Laws, regulations and rules, Fair use (Copyright)--Laws, regulations and rules, File sharing--Laws, regulations and rules, Peer to peer computing--Laws, regulations and rules, Recording industry--Intellectual property, Sound recording industry--Intellectual property
...of the costs of copy production and...mixed blessing for copyright owners. Content...other person to copy is much more likely to constitute copyright infringement than...network at least one copy of at least 50 copyrighted works during any...

4.
Locating Copyright within the First Amendment Skein
Journal article by Neil Weinstock Netanel; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 54, 2001
Subjects:
Fair use (Copyright)--Litigation, Freedom of speech--Litigation, Gone with the Wind (Book)--Litigation, Parody--Litigation, Suntrust Bank v. Houghton Mifflin Co.--268 F.3d 1257 (11th Cir. 2001), The Wind Done Gone (Book)--Litigation
...authorization of the copyright owner (330) --will...needed to make such a copy, and the same is...controls in order to copy public domain material...intermingled with copyright-protected material...deploy access and copy control technology...protection for their copyrights. The DMCA includes...

5.
Copyright as a Rule of Evidence
Journal article by Douglas Lichtman; Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52, 2003
Subjects:
Copyright law--Interpretation and construction, Evidence (Law)--Analysis
...authors" and "writings" referring to copy right, and "inventors" and "discoveries...invoked this power to promulgate federal copyright statutes. The current one is the Copyright...eligible for protection. (17) That phrase was left undefined in the 1976 Act, however, and...

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magazine articles on: copyright and copy left
- 139 results
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1.
No Copyright for Directors
Magazine article by John Weidman; American Theatre, Vol. 16, September 1999
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Theater--Production and direction, Theatrical producers and directors--Laws, regulations, etc.
...he or she is hiring. With this phrase left out, the paragraph seems to mean something...Playwrights should care because if a directors copyright is ever established, it will drastically...attempted to copyright his work by filing a copy of his stage directions, written in the...
2.
101 Questions about Copyright Law: Revised Edition
Magazine article by Robert C. Ehle; American Music Teacher, Vol. 53, December 2003
Subjects:
101 Questions About Copyright Law: Revised Edition (Book)
...continually changing, and issues normally are left for juries to decide, or to negotiations...very conservative and wary of violating copyright law. There are some really fascinating...digital technology make it possible to copy a DVD movie, with no quality loss, to...

3.
Who Will Own Your Next Good Idea? Some Corporations Want to Lock Up Copyright Even Tighter. Some Naive Intellectuals Want to Abandon Copyright Altogether. Where Is a "Do-Nothing" Congress Now That We Need One?
Magazine article by Charles C. Mann; The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 282, September 1998
Subjects:
Copyrights, Intellectual property, Journalists
...my payment to the copyright owner and invisibly...the record in my copy of the text. If I...you still want a copy, right? " Some people...their works with copyright boxes, concedes Esther...that a company can copy a competitors entire...without infringing copyright, because facts cannot...

4.
Copy Questions
Magazine article by Diane Painter, Doug Johnson, Carol Simpson; Learning & Leading with Technology, Vol. 32, May 2005
...about several points noted in "Are You the Copy Cop?" (L L, April 2005, pp. 14-20). Johnson and Simpson give a few scenarios of copyright violations in the classroom, and I question...subject to interpretation. When "cases" are left open-ended, they engender deeper questioning...

5.
Symposium
Magazine article by Ilana Mercer, N. Stephan Kinsella, James Delong; Insight on the News, Vol. 17, May 21, 2001
Subjects:
Copyright--Laws, regulations, etc., Patent law--Interpretation and construction
...the exclusive rights to copy the work or to prepare...recently found out, the copyright holder can stop you from...argument made by the left regarding IP He was...your doing the same. A copy made of a book doesnt...that without patent and copyright we would all perish...

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newspaper articles on: copyright and copy left
- 38 results
More newspaper Results: 1-10 11-20 21-30 31-38 >>



1.
Free Mickey Mouse; Copyrights Have Become Copy Wrongs
Newspaper article; The Washington Times, January 23, 2003
Subjects:
Walt Disney Co.
...Physicians and Surgeons. "This is not about left and right," says Lawrence Lessig, the...done to them. Only 2 percent of work copyrighted between 1923 and 1942, notes Justice Breyer...PETA when we really need them? There are copy rights and copy wrongs. Its time to free...
2.
The Family Gathered to Plan the Funeral. Whispers Came out as Hisses.Barbara Looked like She'd Left a Battle Zone; Farewell to the Greatest: Barbara Wanted a State Funeral. the Kids Didn't; She Wanted an Open Coffin. the Kids Didn't; His Children Were Upset His Last Words Were for His Mother; Now They Are Locked in a Bitter Struggle over His Pounds 150m Will
Newspaper article by Leon Wagener; Sunday Mirror (London, England), May 17, 1998
Subjects:
Sinatra, Frank
...award, the Congresssional Gold Medal, from President Clinton. Instead, he received a bronze copy a fortnight ago while lawyers argued over the copyright of his image being used on the medal. "He clutched it so tightly it was difficult to get...

3.
THE DAY MY LITTLE GIRL DROWNED; ROCKIN' TO DESTRUCTION: DAY TWO: It Was a Tragedy That Left Him Crushed by Grief - and Seeking Solace in Cocaine, Scotch and Joyless Affairs. with Unsparing Honesty, Status Quo Star Rick Parfitt Describes ..
Newspaper article; The Daily Mail (London, England), August 30, 2004
Subjects:
Richard, Cliff
...Meanwhile, our drummer John Coghlan had left the band. He was drinking heavily and...91;pounds sterling amp;#93;17.99. Copyright amp;#91;c amp;#93; 2004, Francis Rossi and Rick Parfitt. To order a copy for amp;#91;pounds sterling amp;#93...

4.
Vince Foster,her Lover of 16 Years Was Dead. Hillary Was Frantic with Grief- and Fear. Had He Left a Suicide Note Implicating Her?
Newspaper article; The Daily Mail (London, England), July 6, 2004
Subjects:
Clinton, Hillary Rodham
...Hillary Clintons Path to Power by Christopher Andersen, published by William Morrow at $25.95. Copyright (c) 2004, Christopher Andersen. To order a copy for pounds sterling14.99 (plus pounds sterling1.95 p p), call 0870 161 0870. Foster had done...

5.
BUSINESS PROFILE: I Was Determined to Succeed; from Crossroads to Becoming Solihull's Newly-Crowned Businesswoman of the Year. It's Been Quite a Journey for Karen Tirebuck, as John Marsden Discovers
Newspaper article; The Birmingham Post (England), November 19, 2005
...TV-types know the whereabouts of a copy, please contact Karen Tirebuck...Solihull and happily concedes she left without a conspicuous sackload...Insult to injury-wise, and due to copyright rules, her character was named...Huge stress... She said: "I left on the Friday and opened on...

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encyclopedia articles on: copyright and copy left
- 3 results




1.
Tapestry
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...are connected by a loose thread that is left hanging at the back. The different colors...artist, is provided for the weaver to copy. Themes for medieval hangings were drawn...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...
2.
Byzantine Art and Architecture
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...are a lavishly illustrated 9th-century copy of the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus and...architecture in the Byzantine Empire has left fewer traces. Foremost among these are...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...

3.
Tenure , in Law
Encyclopedia article; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2004
...when such tenures were recorded in the copy rolls (parchment records) of the manorial...and of serfdom in Europe and elsewhere left small holders in an insecure position...The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed...

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